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Multi-Tenant Defined

June 11, 2018  |  Posted By: Marty Abbott

Of the many SaaS operating principles, perhaps one of the most misunderstood is the principle of tenancy.

Most people have a definition in their mind for the term “multi-tenant”.  Unfortunately, because the term has so many valid interpretations its usage can sometimes be confusing.  Does multi-tenant refer to the physical or logical implementation of our product?  What does multi-tenant mean when it comes to an implementation in a database?

This article first covers the goals of increasing tenancy within solutions, then delves into the various meanings of tenancy.

Multi-Tenant (Multitenant) Solutions and Cost

One of the primary reasons why companies that present products as a service strive for higher levels of tenancy is the cost reduction it affords the company in presenting a service.  With multiple customers sharing applications and infrastructure, system utilization goes up: We get more value production out of each server that we use, or alternatively, we get greater asset utilization. 

Because most companies view the cost of serving customers as a “Cost of Goods Sold’, multitenant solutions have better gross margins than single-tenant solutions.  The X-Axis of the figure below shows the effect of increasing tenancy on the cost of goods sold on a per customer basis:

On Prem vs ASP vs SaaS models and cost implications

Interestingly, multitenant solutions often “force” another SaaS principle to be true:  No more than 1 to 3 versions of software for the entire customer base.  This is especially true if the database is shared at a logical (row-level) basis (more on that later).  Lowering the number of versions of the product decreases the operating expense necessary to maintain multiple versions and therefore also increases operating margins.

Single Tenant, Multi-Tenant and All-Tenant

An important point to keep in mind is that “tenancy” occurs along a spectrum moving from single-tenant to all-tenant.  Multitenant is any solution where the number of tenants from a physical or logical perspective is greater than one, including all-tenant implementations.  As tenancy increases, so does Cost of Goods Sold (COGS from the above figure) decrease and Gross Margins increase. 

The problem with All-Tenant solutions, while attractive from a cost perspective, is that they create a single failure domain [insert https://akfpartners.com/growth-blog/fault-isolation], thereby decreasing overall availability.  When something goes poorly with our product, everything is offline.  For that reason, we differentiate between solutions that enable multi-tenancy for cost reasons and all-tenant solutions. 

Multi-tenancy compared to single-tenant and all tenant

The Many Meanings and Implementations of Tenancy

Multitenant solutions can be implemented in many ways and at many tiers.

Physical and Logical

Physical multi-tenancy is having multiple customers share a number of servers.  This helps increase the overall utilization of these servers and therefore reduce costs of goods sold.  Customers need not share the application for a solution to be physically multitenant.  One could, for instance, run a web server, application server or database per customer.  Many customers with concerns over data separation and privacy are fine with physical multitenancy as long as their data is logically separated.

Logical multi-tenancy is having data share the same application.  The same web server instances, application server instances and database is used for any customer.  The situation becomes a bit murkier however when it comes to databases.

Different relational databases use different terms for similar implementations.  A SQLServer database, for instance, looks very much like an Oracle Schema.  Within databases, a solution can be logically multitenant by either implementing tenancy in a table (we call that row level multitenancy) or within a schema/database (we call that schema multitenancy). 

In either case, a single instance of the relational database management system or software (RDBMS) is used, while customer transactions are separated by a customer id inside a table, or by database/schema id if separated as such.

While physical multitenancy provides cost benefits, logical multitenancy often provides significantly greater cost benefits.  Because applications are shared, we need less system overhead to run an application for each customer and thusly can get even greater throughput and efficiencies out of our physical or virtualized servers.

Depth of Multi-Tenancy

The diagram below helps to illustrate that every layer in our service architecture has an impact to multi-tenancy.  We can be physically or logically multi-tenant at the network layer, the web server layer, the application layer and the persistence or database layer.

The deeper into the stack our tenancy goes, the greater the beneficial impact (cost savings) to costs of goods sold and the higher our gross margins.

Review of tenancy options in the traditional deployment stack

The AKF Multi-Tenant Cube

To further the understanding of tenancy, we introduce the AKF Multi-Tenant Cube: 

Multi-tenancy cube explaining cost implications mapped by degree, mode and type of multi-tenancy

The X-Axis describes the “mode’ of tenancy, moving from shared nothing, to physical, to logical.  As we progress from sharing nothing to sharing everything, utilization goes up and cost of goods sold goes down.

The Y-Axis describes the depth of tenancy from shared nothing, through network, web, app and finally persistence or database tier.  Again, as the depth of tenancy increase, so do Gross Margins.

The Z-Axis describes the degree of tenancy, or the number of tenants.  Higher levels of tenancy decrease costs of goods sold, but architecturally we never want a failure domain that encompasses all tenants. 

When running a XaaS (SaaS, etc) business, we are best off implementing logical multitenancy through every layer of our architecture.  While we want tenancy to be high per instance, we also do not want all tenants to be in a single implementation.

AKF Partners helps companies of all sizes achieve their availability, time to market, scalability, cost and business goals.  Contact us today to see how we can help your organization in scalability and availability.

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The Many Unfortunate Meanings of Cloud

June 5, 2018  |  Posted By: Marty Abbott

Enough is enough already – stop using the term “Cloud”.  Somewhere during the last 20 years, the term “Cloud” started to mean to product offerings what Sriracha and Tabasco mean to food:  everything’s better if we can just find a way to incorporate it.  Just as Sriracha makes barely edible items palatable and further enhances the flavor of delicacies, so evidently does “Cloud” confuse the unsophisticated buyer or investor and enhance the value for more sophisticated buyers and investors. That’s a nice analogy, but it’s also bullshit.

The term cloud just means too many things – some of which are shown below:


various meanings of the word cloud and the confusion it causes


The real world of cloud offerings can be roughly separated into two groups:

  1. Pretenders This group of companies know, at some level, that they haven’t turned the corner and started truly offering “services”.  They support heavy customization, are addicted to maintenance revenue streams, and offer low levels of tenancy.  These companies simply can’t escape the sins of their past.  Instead, they slap the term “cloud” on their product in the hopes of being seen as being relevant.  At worst, it’s an outright lie.  At best, it’s slightly misleading relative to the intended meaning of the term.  Unless, of course, anything that’s accessible through a browser is “Cloud”.  These companies should stop using the term because deep down, when they are alone with a glass of bourbon, they know they aren’t a “cloud company”.
  2. Contenders This group of companies either blazed a path for the move to services offerings (think rentable instead of purchasable) products or quickly recognized the services revolution; they were “born cloud” or are truly embracing the cloud model.  They prefer configuration over customization, and stick to the notion of a small number of releases (countable on one hand) in production across their entire customer base.  They embrace physical and logical multi-tenancy both to increase margins and decrease customer costs.  These are the companies that pay the tax for the term “cloud” – a tax that funds the welfare checks for the “pretenders”.

The graph below plots Cloud Pretenders, Contenders and Not Cloud products along the axes of gross margin and operating margin:

Various models of cloud and on-premise plotted against cost of goods sold and operating expense

Consider one type of “Pretender” – the case of a company hosting a single tenant, client customized software release for each of their many customers.  This is an ASP (Application Service Provider) model.  But there is a reason the provider of the service won’t call themselves an ASP:  The margins of an ASP stinks relative to that of a true “SaaS” company.  The term ASP is old and antiquated.  The fix?  Just pour a bit of “cloud sauce” on it and everything will be fine.
Contrast the above case with that of a “Contender”:  physical and logical multi-tenancy at every layer of the architecture and \ a small number of production releases (one to three) across the entire customer base.  Both operating and gross margins increase as maintenance costs and hosting costs decrease when allocated across the entire customer base. 
Confused?  So are we.  Here are a few key takeaways:

  1. “Cloud” should mean more than just being accessed through the internet via a browser.  Unfortunately, it no longer does as anyone who can figure out how to replace their clients with a browser and host their product will call themselves a “Cloud” provider.
  2. Contenders should stop using the term “Cloud” because it invites comparison with companies to which they are clearly superior:  Superior in terms of margins, market needs, architecture and strategic advantage.
  3. Pretenders should stop using the term “Cloud” for both ethical reasons and reasons related to survivability.  Ethically the term is somewhere between an outright lie and an ethically contentious quibble or half-truth.  Survivability comes into play when the company believes its own lie and stops seeing a reason to change to become more competitive.

AKF Partners helps companies create “Cloud” (XaaS) transition plans to transform their business.  We help with financial models, product approach, market fit, product and technology architecture, business strategy and help companies ensure they organize properly to maximize their opportunity in XaaS.

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The Problem with Non-Functional Requirements

May 4, 2018  |  Posted By: Marty Abbott

NonFunctional Requirements AKF Scale Cube
Image Credit

Many of our clients use the term “Non-Functional Requirements” to group into a basket those portions of their solution that don’t easily fit into method or function-based execution of market needs.  Examples of non-functional requirements often include things like “Availability”, “Scalability”, “Response Time”, “Data Sovereignty” (as codified within requirements such as the GDPR), etc.  Very often, these “NFRs” are relegated to second class citizens within the development lifecycle and, if lucky, end up as a technical debt item to be worked on later.  More often than not, they are just forgotten until major disaster strikes.  This happens so often that we at AKF joke that “NFR” really stands for “No F-ing Resources (available to do the job)”.

While I believe that this relegation to second class citizen is a violation of fiduciary responsibility, I completely understand how we’ve collectively gotten away with it for so long.  For most of the history of our products, we’ve produced solutions for which customers are responsible for running.  We built the code, shipped it, and customers installed it and ran it on their systems. 

Fortunately (for most of us) the world has changed to the SaaS model.  As subscribers, we no longer bear the risk of running our own systems.  Implementation is easier and faster, costs of running solutions lower. 

Unfortunately (for most of us) these changes also mean we are now wholly accountable for NFRs.  We now mostly produce services, for which we are wholly accountable for the complete outcomes including how our solution runs.

Most NFRS Are Table Stakes and Must-Haves

In the world of delivering services, most NFR capabilities are must-haves.  SaaS companies provide a utility, and the customer expectation is that utility will be available whenever the customer needs it.  You simply do not have an option to decide to punt attributes like availability, or regulatory compliance to a later date. 

The Absolute Value of NFR Your Product/Service Needs Varies

While we believe most NFRs are necessary, and non-negotiable for playing in the SaaS space, the amount that you need of each of them varies with the portion of the market you are addressing within the Technology Adoption Lifecycle.

As you progress from left to right into a market, the NFR expectations of the adopters of your solution increase.  Innovators care more about the differentiating capability that you offer than they do the availability of your solution.  That said, they still need to be able to use your product and will stop using it or churn if it doesn’t meet their availability, response time, data sovereignty, and privacy needs.  NFRs are still necessary – they just matter less to innovators than later adopters.

At the other end of the extreme, Late Majority and Laggard adopters care greatly about NFRs.  Whereas Innovators may be willing to grudgingly live with 99.8% availability, the Late Majority will settle for nothing less than 99.95% or better.

It’s Time to Eliminate the Phrase Non-Functional Requirement

We believe that even the name “Non-Functional Requirement” somehow implies that necessary capabilities like availability and data sovereignty can somehow take a back seat to other activities within the solutions we create.  At the very least, the term fails to denote the necessity (some of them legally so) of these attributes.
We prefer names like “Table Stakes” or “Must Have Requirements” to NFRs.
 
It’s Also Time to Eliminate the Primary Cause

While we sometimes find that teams simply haven’t changed their mindset to properly understand that Table Stakes aren’t optional investments, we more often find a more insidious cause:  Moral Hazards.  Moral hazards exist when one person makes a decision for which another must bear the cost:  Person A decides to smoke, but Person B bears the risk of cancer instead of Person A.

Commonly, we see product managers with ownership over product decisions, but no accountability for Table Stakes like availability, response time, cost effectiveness, security, etc.  The problem with this is that, as we’ve described, the Table Stakes are the foundation of the Maslow’s Needs for online products.  Engineering teams and product teams should jointly own all the attributes of the products they co-create.  Doing so will help fix the flawed notion that Table Stakes can be deferred.

AKF Partners helps clients build highly available, scalable, fast response time solutions that meet the needs of the portion of the Technology Adoption Lifecycle they are addressing.

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SaaS Migration Challenges

March 12, 2018  |  Posted By: Dave Swenson

AKF scale cube cloud computing SaaS conversion

More and more companies are waking up from the 20th century, realizing that their on-premise, packaged, waterfall paradigms no longer play in today’s SaaS, agile world. SaaS (Software as a Service) has taken over, and for good reason. Companies (and investors) long for the higher valuation and increased margins that SaaS’ economies of scale provide. Many of these same companies realize that in order to fully benefit from a SaaS model, they need to release far more frequently, enhancing their products through frequent iterative cycles rather than massive upgrades occurring only 4 times a year. So, they not only perform a ‘lift and shift’ into the cloud, they also move to an Agile PDLC. Customers, tired of incurring on-premise IT costs and risks, are also pushing their software vendors towards SaaS.

SaaS Migration is About More Than Just Technology – It is An Organization Reboot
But, what many of the companies migrating to SaaS don’t realize is that migrating to SaaS is not just a technology exercise.  Successful SaaS migrations require a ‘reboot’ of the entire company. Certainly, the technology organization will be most affected, but almost every department in a company will need to change. Sales teams need to pitch the product differently, selling a leased service vs. a purchased product, and must learn to address customers’ typical concerns around security. The role of professional services teams in SaaS drastically changes, and in most cases, shrinks. Customer support personnel should have far greater insight into reported problems. Product management in a SaaS world requires small, nimble enhancements vs. massive, ‘big-bang’ upgrades. Your marketing organization will potentially need to target a different type of customer for your initial SaaS releases - leveraging the Technology Adoption Lifecycle to identify early adopters of your product in order to inform a small initial release (Minimum Viable Product).

It is important to recognize the risks that will shift from your customers to you. In an on-premise (“on-prem”) product, your customer carries the burden of capacity planning, security, availability, disaster recovery. SaaS companies sell a service (we like to say an outcome), not just a bundle of software.  That service represents a shift of the risks once held by a customer to the company provisioning the service.  In most cases, understanding and properly addressing these risks are new undertakings for the company in question and not something for which they have the proper mindset or skills to be successful.

This company-wide reboot can certainly be a daunting challenge, but if approached carefully and honestly, addressing key questions up front, communicating, educating, and transparently addressing likely organizational and personnel changes along the way, it is an accomplishment that transforms, even reignites, a company.

This is the first in a series of articles that captures AKF’s observations and first-hand experiences in guiding companies through this process.


Don’t treat this as a simple rewrite of your existing product –
Answer these questions first…


Any company about to launch into a SaaS migration should first take a long, hard look at their current product, determining what out of the legacy product is not worth carrying forward. Is all of that existing functionality really being used, and still relevant? Prior to any move towards SaaS, the following questions and issues need to be addressed:

Customization or Configuration?
SaaS efficiencies come from many angles, but certainly one of those is having a single codebase for all customers. If your product today is highly customized, where code has been written and is in use for specific customers, you’ve got a tough question to address. Most product variances can likely be handled through configuration, a data-driven mechanism that enables/disables or otherwise shapes functionality for each customer. No customer-specific code from the legacy product should be carried forward unless it is expected to be used by multiple clients. Note that this shift has implications on how a sales force promotes the product (they can no longer promise to build whatever a potential customer wants, but must sell the current, existing functionality) as well as professional services (no customizations means less work for them).

Single/Multi/All-Tenancy?
Many customers, even those who accept the improved security posture a cloud-hosted product provides over their own on-premise infrastructure, absolutely freak when they hear that their data will coexist with other customers’ data in a single multi-tenant instance, no matter what access management mechanisms exist. Multi-tenancy is another key to achieving economies of scale that bring greater SaaS efficiencies. Don’t let go of it easily, but if you must, price extra for it.

Who Owns the Data?
Many products focus only on the transactional set of functionality, leaving the analytics side to their customers. In an on-premise scenario, where the data resides in the customers’ facilities, ownership of the data is clear. Customers are free to slice & dice the data as they please. When that data is hosted, particularly in a multi-tenant scenario where multiple customers’ data lives in the same database, direct customer access presents significant challenges. Beyond the obvious related security issues is the need to keep your customers abreast of the more frequent updates that occur with SaaS product iterations. The decision is whether you replicate customer data into read-only instances, provide bulk export into their own hosted databases, or build analytics into your product?

All of these have costs - ensure you’re passing those on to your customers who need this functionality.

May I Upgrade Now?
Today, do your customers require permission for you to upgrade their installation? You’ll need to change that behavior to realize another SaaS efficiency - supporting of as few versions as possible. Ideally, you’ll typically only support a single version (other than during deployment). If your customers need to ‘bless’ a release before migrating on to it, you’re doing it wrong. Your releases should be small, incremental enhancements, potentially even reaching continuous deployment. Therefore, the changes should be far easier to accept and learn than the prior big-bang, huge upgrades of the past. If absolutely necessary, create a sandbox for customers to access new releases, but be prepared to deal with the potentially unwanted, non-representative feedback from the select few who try it out in that sandbox.

Wait? Who Are We Targeting?
All of the questions above lead to this fundamental issue: Are tomorrow’s SaaS customers the same as today’s? The answer? Not necessarily. First, in order to migrate existing customers on to your bright, shiny new SaaS platform, you’ll need to have functional parity with the legacy product. Reaching that parity will take significant effort and lead to a big-bang approach. Instead, pick a subset or an MVP of existing functionality, and find new customers who will be satisfied with that. Then, after proving out the SaaS architecture and related processes, gradually migrate more and more functionality, and once functional parity is close, move existing customers on to your SaaS platform.

To find those new customers interested in placing their bets on your initial SaaS MVP, you’ll need to shift your current focus on the right side of the Technology Adoption Lifecycle (TALC) to the left - from your current ‘Late Majority’ or ‘Laggards’ to ‘Early Adopters’ or ‘Early Majority’. Ideally, those customers on the left side of the TALC will be slightly more forgiving of the ‘learnings’ you’ll face along the way, as well as prove to be far more valuable partners with you as you further enhance your MVP.

The key is to think out of the existing box your customers are in, to reset your TALC targeting and to consider a new breed of customer, one that doesn’t need all that you’ve built, is willing to be an early adopter, and will be a cooperative partner throughout the process.


Our next article on SaaS migration will touch on organizational approaches, particularly during the build-out of the SaaS product, and the paradigm shifts your product and engineering teams need to embrace in order to be successful.

AKF has led many companies on their journey to SaaS, often getting called in as that journey has been derailed. We’ve seen the many potholes and pitfalls and have learned how to avoid them. Let us help you move your product into the 21st century.  See our SaaS Migration service


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